Delta Research And Global Observation Network (DRAGON)

Deltas in Crisis
  • Background Information

    ARCBC: Asean Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, Irrawaddy Delta
    Abstract: Web site provides an overview of the Irrawaddy Delta, including location, area, wetland types, climate, vegetation, land use, ecological disturbances and threats, flora and fauna.

    Aung, Myint, Fujiwara, Kazue, and Mochida, Yukira, 2004, Fellowship report. An ecological study of mangrove vegetation in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar ITTO Tropical Forest Update, 14(2):19-21.
    Abstract: Results are presented of a study on the different mangrove communities and their distribution in the Ayeyarwady Delta in Myanmar, and the relationship between mangrove vegetation and its environment in the delta. Based on the results, a systematic land use scheme has been proposed for the future restoration and conservation of the mangrove vegetation. The crucial element is the establishment and maintenance of buffer zone forests in which local people continue to extract resources based on their needs and the capacity of the ecosystem to provide such resources on a sustainable basis.

    Central intelligence Agency, 2008, Burma in The 2008 World Factbook.
    Abstract: The World Factbook includes country-specific information on the geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues of selected countries.

    FAO, 2003, Myanmar: Vegetation Description in Status and trends in mangrove area extent worldwide Wilkie, Mette Loyche and Fortuna, Serena: Forest Resources Assessment Working Paper No. 63, Forest Resources Division. FAO, Rome.
    Abstract: The Ayeyarwady Delta represents an important and extended mangrove forest. It is located in the Ayeyarwady division, and it is included in the Delta Forest Division, which comprises 13 forests reserves, among which eleven contain mangroves and their associated flora and fauna. Working Paper No. 63 notes that population pressure in coastal areas worldwide has led to the conversion of many mangrove areas to other uses and that numerous case studies describe mangrove losses over time. However, scarce information exists on the current status and trends in mangrove area extent at the global level. This document describes an initiative by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) aimed at facilitating access to comprehensive information on the current and past extent of mangroves in all countries and areas in which they exist. This initiative builds upon an earlier assessment by FAO/UNEP in 1980, the recent FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 (FRA 2000) and an extensive literature search.

    International Charter Space and Major Disasters
    Abstract: Web page—The International Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters through Authorized Users. Each member agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and thus is helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property.

    International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Abstract: Web site—The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a Swiss-based humanitarian organization and founding member of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (1863). This Movement is composed of the ICRC, National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The ICRC is mandated by the international community to be the guardian and promoter of international humanitarian law.

    Thorbjarnarson, John, Platt, Steven G., and Khaing, U. Saw Tun, 2000, A population survey of the estuarine crocodile in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar : Oryx 34 (4):317–324
    Abstract: The estuarine crocodile Crocodylus porosus was formerly abundant in coastal regions of Myanmar, but is now known principally from the lower Ayeyarwady Delta. We conducted a survey during January 1999 to assess quantitatively the status of crocodile populations in protected areas of the lower delta. Spotlight counts were conducted along 275.4 km of waterways. Sixty-one crocodiles (50 juveniles, 4 subadults, 2 adults and 5 eyeshines) were observed in the Meinmahla Kyun Wildlife Sanctuary (MKWS), and the total population was estimated to be less than 100. The Kadônkani and Pyindaye Reserved Forests (RF) apparently no longer support viable populations. Although crocodiles remain critically endangered in the region, a comparison with survey data from 1980 suggests localized recovery is occurring in MKWS. Population declines are attributed to a combination of commercial skin hunting, habitat loss, drowning in fishing nets and over-collection of living animals to supply crocodile farms. A programme of law enforcement, habitat protection and head-starting juveniles is necessary to ensure the continued survival of estuarine crocodiles in the Ayeyarwady Delta.

    Abstract: Web page—UNOSAT is the UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) Operational Satellite Applications Programme, implemented in co-operation with the UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and the European Organisation of High Energy Physics (CERN).

    United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
    Abstract: Web site—USAID is an independent federal government agency that receives overall foreign policy guidance from the Secretary of State. USAID is the principal U.S. agency to extend assistance to countries recovering from disaster, trying to escape poverty, and engaging in democratic reforms.

    Wandrey, Craig J., 2006, Eocene to Miocene Composite Total Petroleum System, Irrawaddy-Andaman and North Burma Geologic Provinces, Myanmar: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2208-E, 26 p.
    Abstract: The Eocene-Miocene Composite Total Petroleum System (804801), Myanmar, was divided into two units for the purpose of assessment, the Central Burma Basin Assessment Unit (80480101) and the Irrawaddy-Andaman Assessment Unit (80480102). This total petroleum system has produced the majority of the hydrocarbons in the Central Burma Basin and Irrawaddy Delta.

    Wandrey, Craig J., Milici, Robert, and Law, Ben E.,2000, Region 8 Assessment Summary—South Asia in U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000: Description and Results: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 60.
    Abstract: The South Asia assessment includes a regional geologic summary, a country assessment output summary, a region assessment output summary, and a list of assessed geologic provinces (Sulaiman-Kithar, Kohat-Potwar, Assam, Indus, Bombay, Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, and Irrawaddy). The entire report (4 CD-ROM discs), includes estimates of the quantities of conventional oil, gas, and natural gas liquids outside the United States that have the potential to be added to reserves in the next 30 years (1995 to 2025). Two components, undiscovered resources and reserve growth, are estimated. One hundred and forty nine total petroleum systems and two hundred and forty six assessment units (subdivisions of total petroleum systems) were assessed. The supporting maps, data, text and tables produced by the World Energy Assessment Team during this five-year project (1995-2000) are included in the set.

    Werner, Dietrich, 2004, Biological Resources and Migration: Springer-Verlag New York, 363 p.
    Abstract: Chapter 9.7 focuses on the socioeconomic status of mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta. The book notes that migration is a global and ubiquitous phenomenon. Large percentages of cultivated land in industrialized as well as in developing countries are covered with migrated or introduced plants. In natural habitats and communities, migration of animals, plants and microorganisms play a key role in the functioning or threat to the present ecosystems.

    World Health Organization (WHO) Abstract: Web site—WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.

Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON)